XDS-SD Harmonization

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Intro

Several IHE profiles rely on HL7 specifications, in particular HL7 CDA R2. Implementers of these profiles are facing many stumbling blocks due to inconsistencies among the HL7 CDA based IHE profiles and the artifacts published by HL7 that implementers are relying on for their respective implementations. These implementations issues are significant enough to threaten the interoperability goals of IHE and should be addressed across the relevant committees.

This issue in the beginning discussion phases amongst the co-chairs of IHE. This effort with XDs-SD is the beginning of an alignment campaign in which all content profiles in IHE that are based on CDA use the PCC TF, in particular use the content module approach where appropriate. This will provide greater implementation and documentation consistency.

Contents


Volume 1

HIMSS and RSNA
Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise

IHEBandW.png

IHE Patient Care Coordination

Scanned Documents (XDS-SD)
Technical Framework Supplement
Volume I

Revision 3.0
2008-2009

Public Comment



Scanned Documents Content Integration Profile

A variety of legacy paper, film, electronic and scanner outputted formats are used to store and exchange clinical documents. These formats are not designed for healthcare documentation, and furthermore, do not have a uniform mechanism to store healthcare metadata associated with the documents, including patient identifiers, demographics, encounter, order or service information. The association of structured, healthcare metadata with this kind of document is important to maintain the integrity of the patient health record as managed by the source system. It is necessary to provide a mechanism that allows such source metadata to be stored with the document. This profile defines how to couple such information, represented within a structured HL7 CDA R2 header, with a PDF or plaintext formatted document containing clinical information. Furthermore, this profile defines elements of the CDA R2 header necessary to minimally annotate these documents. Such header elements include information regarding patient identity, patient demographics, scanner operator identity, scanning technology, scan time as well as best available authoring information. Portions of CDA R2 header, along with supplemental document registration information, are then used to populate XDS Document Entry metadata.

The content of this profile is intended for use in XDS, XDR and XDM. Content is created by a Content Creator and is to be consumed by a Content Consumer. The Content Creator can be embodied by a Document Source Actor or a Portable Media Creator, and the Content Consumer by a Document Consumer, a Document Recipient or a Portable Media Importer. Obligations imposed on the Content Creator and the Content Consumer by this profile are understood to be fulfilled by the software that creates the final document for submission and/or consumes profile conformant documents rather than any particular scanning technology.

Use Cases

Content Use Cases

Text Chart Notes Examples of this content include handwritten, typed or word processed clinical documents and/or chart notes. These documents are typically multi-page, narrative text. They include preprinted forms with handwritten responses, printed documents, and typed and/or word processed documents, and documents saved in various word processing formats. Appropriate formats are PDF, derived from the word processing format, or plaintext, if the text structure is all that needs to be conveyed. PDF is desirable because it most faithfully renders word processed document content.
Graphs, Charts and/or Line Drawings Examples of this content include Growth Charts, Fetal Monitoring Graphs. Line drawings such as those described above are best rendered using PDF versus an image based compression, such as JPEG. However, when computer generated PDFs include lines, PDF vector encoding should be used.
Object Character Recognition (OCR) Scanned Documents Clinical documents can contain text and annotations that cannot be fully processed by optical character recognition (OCR). We call attention to the fact that the OCR text content may only partially represent the document content. These are best supported by converting to PDF format, which can mix the use of OCR’d text, compressed scanned text, and scanned image areas.
Electronic Documents Existing clinical documents that are electronically transmitted or software created (e.g. PDF, or plaintext) can be considered as actually scanned, previously scanned or virtually scanned before they are shared. In this context, “actually scanned” refers to electronic documents, newly created via some scanning technology from legacy paper or film for the purposes of sharing. “Previously scanned” refers to electronic documents that were previously produced via some scanning technology from legacy paper or film, but have existed in their own right for a period of time. “Virtually Scanned” electronic documents are existing electronic documents not derived from legacy paper or film that either are PDF/A or plaintext format or have been converted to one of these formats for the purposes of sharing. This content is covered by this profile.

Content Creator Use Cases

Content is created by a Content Creator. Impact on application function and workflow is implementation specific and out of scope of this content profile, though we note that they will be compliant with this content profile if they can produce CDA wrapped PDF, CDA wrapped plaintext or both. The following example use case is included to aid in the scoping of this content profile.

Legacy Clinic is a small two-physician clinic. They presently store their patient's medical records on paper. The Clinic is trying to figure out what to do with its paper and word processing documents as it converts over to an electronic system. They plan would like to be able to view the files over their local intranet. Presently, most records are handwritten on preprinted paper forms that are inserted into specific sections of the patient's chart. More detailed encounter reports are dictated and sent to a transcription company that returns them in a word processing format. The medical records clerk at Legacy Clinic receives these files via e-mail, decrypts them, prints them out, and adds them to the patient's chart in the correct section. Over the years, Legacy Clinic has used a number of different transcription companies, and the documents are stored in a variety of word processing formats. Several years ago, they began to require that returned documents be in RTF format in an attempt to reduce frustrations induced by dealing with discrepant word processing formats. Only in some cases was patient and encounter metadata stored within the word processing document in a regular format, depending upon the transcription company used at the time. A third party presently handles labs for the clinic. These are usually returned to the Clinic as printed documents. The clerk inserts these into the labs section in the patient's chart. In the case of Legacy Clinic, the link between the word processing documents and the patient has been maintained for many of its documents, since the existing manual process maintains that association, and some of the files also contain the encounter metadata. However, the link to the specific encounter will need to be reestablished by interpreting the document content, which will require a great deal of manual effort for some of their documents which do not have it, and will still require custom handling depending upon the format used to store this metadata. Legacy Clinic uses a transcription provider that can generate PDF documents, wrapped in a CDA Release 2.0 header. These are sent to Legacy Clinic via e-mail. While the same manual process is used, these documents are now in a format that is ready to be used by their new EHR system.

Content Consumer Use Cases

Content is consumed by a Content Consumer. Impact on application function and workflow is implementation specific and out of scope of this content profile. However, we note that adoption of this profile will necessitate the Content Consumer, upon document receipt, support the processing of both CDA wrapped PDF and CDA wrapped plaintext.

Actors/Transaction

There are two actors in the XDS-SD profile, the Content Creator and the Content Consumer. Content is created by a Content Creator and is to be consumed by a Content Consumer. The sharing or transmission of content from one actor to the other is addressed by the appropriate use of IHE profiles described below, and is out of scope of this profile. A Document Source or a Portable Media Creator may embody the Content Creator Actor. A Document Consumer, a Document Recipient or a Portable Media Importer may embody the Content Consumer Actor. The sharing or transmission of content or updates from one actor to the other is addressed by the use of appropriate IHE profiles described in the section on Content Bindings with XDS, XDM and XDR.

XDS-SD Actor Diagram


Options

Actor Option
XDS-SD Options
Content Consumer View Option (1)
Document Import Option (1)
Section Import Option (1)
Discrete Data Import Option (1)
Note 1: The Actor shall support at least one of these options.

Content Consumer Options

View Option

This option defines the processing requirements placed on Content Consumers for providing access, rendering and management of the medical document. See the View Option in PCC TF-2 for more details on this option.

A Content Creator Actor should provide access to a style sheet that ensures consistent rendering of the medical document content as was displayed by the Content Consumer Actor.

The Content Consumer Actor shall be able to present a view of the document using this style sheet if present.

Document Import Option

This option defines the processing requirements placed on Content Consumers for providing access, and importing the entire medical document and managing it as part of the patient record. See the Document Import Option in PCC TF-2 for more details on this option.

Section Import Option

This option defines the processing requirements placed on Content Consumers for providing access to, and importing the selected section of the medical document and managing them as part of the patient record. See the Section Import Option in PCC TF-2 for more details on this option.

Discrete Data Import Option

This option defines the processing requirements placed on Content Consumers for providing access, and importing discrete data from selected sections of the medical document and managing them as part of the patient record. See the Discrete Data Import Option in PCC TF-2 for more details on this option.


Cross Enterprise Document Sharing, Media Interchange and Reliable Messaging

Actors from the ITI XDS, XDM and XDR profiles embody the Content Creator and Content Consumer sharing function of this profile. A Content Creator or Content Consumer may be grouped with appropriate actors from the XDS, XDM or XDR profiles to exchange the content described therein. The metadata sent in the document sharing or interchange messages has specific relationships or dependencies (which we call bindings) to the content of the clinical document described in the content profile.

The Patient Care Coordination Technical Framework defines the bindings to use when grouping the Content Creator of this Profile with actors from the IHE ITI XDS, XDM or XDR Integration Profiles.


Scanned Documents Bindings
Content Binding Actor Optionality
Scanned Documents Medical Document Binding to XD* Content Creator R
Content Consumer R


Content Creation Process

This profile assumes the following sequence of events in creation of an XDS-SD document.

  1. A legacy paper document is scanned and a PDF/A is rendered. Alternatively, an electronic document is converted, if necessary, to PDF/A or plaintext format (see REFERENCE).
  2. Software, conformant to this profile and most likely with the aid of user input (ex. to provide document title, confidentiality code, original author), renders the CDA R2 header pertaining to the PDF or plaintext produced. The document is wrapped and the XDS-SD document is completed (see REFERENCE).
  3. XDS metadata is produced from data contained in the CDA header and supplemental information (see REFRENCE).
  4. The completed XDS-SD document and corresponding metadata is sent via the Provide an Register Document Set Transaction [ITI-15] of XDS/XDR, or the Distribute Document Set on Media Transaction [ITI-32] of XDM.


Appendix A - Actor Descriptions

Actors are information systems or components of information systems that produce, manage, or act on information associated with operational activities in the enterprise.

Content Creator 
The Content Creator Actor is responsible for the creation of content and transmission to a Content Consumer.
Content Consumer 
A Content Consumer Actor is responsible for viewing, import, or other processing of content created by a Content Creator Actor.
Clinical Data Consumer 
A clinical data consumer makes use of clinical patient data.
Clinical Data Source 
A Clinical Data Sources maintains patient information about vital signs, problem and allergies, results from diagnostic tests (e.g., Lab, Imaging, or other test results), medications, immunizations or historical or planned visits and procedures.

Appendix B - Transaction Descriptions

Transactions are interactions between actors that transfer the required information through standards-based messages. The PCC Technical Framework does not define any specific transactions, as these are assumed to be carried out through the use of transactions defined in other IHE Profiles.

Query Existing Data 
Request information about recent patient information, used to obtain vital signs measurements, problems and allergies, diagnostic results, medications, immunizations, or procedures or visits relevant for a patient. The query may request information about some or all of the above topics, or may request information on a specific topic, or one entered for a specific encounter or date range.


Appendix C - How to Prepare an IHE Integration Statement

IHE Integration Statements are documents prepared and published by vendors to describe the conformance of their products with the IHE Technical Framework. They identify the specific IHE capabilities a given product supports in terms of IHE actors and integration profiles described in the technical frameworks of each domain.

Users familiar with these concepts can use Integration Statements to determine what level of integration a vendor asserts a product supports with complementary systems and what clinical and operational benefits such integration might provide. Integration Statements are intended to be used in conjunction with statements of conformance to specific standards (e.g., HL7, IETF, DICOM, W3C, etc.).

IHE provides a process for vendors to test their implementations of IHE actors and integration profiles. The IHE testing process, culminating in a multi-party interactive testing event called the Connectathon, provides vendors with valuable feedback and provides a baseline indication of the conformance of their implementations. The process is not intended to independently evaluate, or ensure, product compliance. In publishing the results of the Connectathon and facilitating access to vendors' IHE Integration Statements, IHE and its sponsoring organizations are in no way attesting to the accuracy or validity of any vendor's IHE Integration Statements or any other claims by vendors regarding their products.

IMPORTANT -- PLEASE NOTE: Vendors have sole responsibility for the accuracy and validity of their IHE Integration Statements. Vendors' Integration Statements are made available through IHE simply for consideration by parties seeking information about the integration capabilities of particular products. IHE and its sponsoring organizations have not evaluated or approved any IHE Integration Statement or any related product, and IHE and its sponsoring organizations shall have no liability or responsibility to any party for any claims or damages, whether direct, indirect, incidental or consequential, including but not limited to business interruption and loss of revenue, arising from any use of, or reliance upon, any IHE Integration Statement.


Structure and Content of an IHE Integration Statement

An IHE Integration Statement for a product shall include:

  1. The Vendor Name
  2. The Product Name (as used in the commercial context) to which the IHE Integration Statement applies.
  3. The Product Version to which the IHE Integration Statement applies.
  4. A publication date and optionally a revision designation for the IHE Integration Statement.
  5. The following statement: "This product implements all transactions required in the IHE Technical Framework to support the IHE Integration Profiles, Actors and Options listed below:"
  6. A list of IHE Integration Profiles supported by the product and, for each Integration Profile, a list of IHE Actors supported. For each integration profile/actor combination, one or more of the options defined in the IHE Technical Framework may also be stated. Profiles, Actors and Options shall use the names defined by the IHE Technical Framework Volume I. (Note: The vendor may also elect to indicate the version number of the Technical Framework referenced for each Integration Profile.)

Note that implementation of the integration profile implies implementation of all required transactions for an actor as well as selected options.

The statement shall also include references and/or internet links to the following information:

  1. Specific internet address (or universal resource locator [URL]) where the vendor's Integration Statements are posted
  2. URL where the vendor's standards conformance statements (e.g., HL7, DICOM, etc.) relevant to the IHE transactions implemented by the product are posted.
  3. URL of the IHE Initiative's web page for general IHE information www.himss.org/ihe.

An IHE Integration Statement is not intended to promote or advertise aspects of a product not directly related to its implementation of IHE capabilities.

Format of an IHE Integration Statement

Each Integration Statement shall follow the format shown below. Vendors may add a cover page and any necessary additional information in accordance with their product documentation policies.

IHE Integration Statement Date 12 Oct 2005
Vendor Product Name Version
Any Medical Systems Co. IntegrateRecord V2.3
This product implements all transactions required in the IHE Technical Framework to support the IHE Integration Profiles, Actors and Options listed below:
Integration Profiles Implemented Actors Implemented Options Implemented
Cross-Enterprise Sharing of Medical Summaries Document Consumer View Option
Audit Trail and Node Authentication Secure Node none
Patient Identity Cross-referencing Patient Identifier Cross-reference Consumer PIX Update Notification
Internet address for vendor's IHE information:www.anymedicalsystemsco.com/ihe
Links to Standards Conformance Statements for the Implementation
HL7 www.anymedicalsystemsco.com/hl7
Links to general information on IHE
In North America: www.ihe.het In Europe: www.ihe-europe.org In Japan: www.jira-net.or.jp/ihe-j

IHE Integration Statement template

An IHE Integration Statement template (MS Word version) is available here.

The IHE Product Registry

The assumption of an integration statement is that all actors listed are functionally grouped and conform to any profile specifications for such groupings. In case of exceptions the vendor must explicitly describe the functional groupings.

IHE has developed a new Web-based database of Integration Statements. The IHE Product Registry enables developers to create, manage and publish Integration Statements for their commercial and open source healthcare IT systems. It allows users to browse for these systems based on their conformance with specific IHE Actors and Profiles. The system is open for use by developers and users now!

Appendix D - Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk

See File:Braden.pdf

Glossary

The following terms are used in various places within this technical framework, and are defined below. The complete IHE Glossary is available on the IHE Wiki at http://wiki.ihe.net/index.php/IHE_Glossary .

Actor 
An entity within a use case diagram that can perform an action within a use case diagram. Possible actions are creation or consumption of a message
Acuity Assessment 

Also known as triage category, this is the acuity of the patient assigned during the process of ED triage. A number of evidenced based triage scales exist, including the Emergency Severity Index (ESI), Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS), and the Manchester Triage System. In many emergency departments, patients may simply be classified as emergent, urgent or non-urgent.

ADT
Admit, Discharge & Transfer.
Affinity Domain Policy
Affinity Domain Policy that clearly defines the appropriate uses of the XDS Affinity Domain. Within this policy is a defined set of acceptable use Privacy Consent Policies that are published and understood.
ASTM
Formerly the American Society of Testing and Materials, now ASTM International. An SDO that develops a number of standards across a wide variety of industries, including healthcare.
ATNA
Audit Trail and Node Authentication. An IHE ITI profile.
Care Context
The participations surrounding the care provision act, and the attributes of that act. Everything in the document header. Data history, links to clinical reasoning.
Continuity of Care Document(CCD) 
An HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) implementation alternative to ASTM ADJE2369 for institutions or organizations committed to HL7 standards. This specification was developed as a collaborative effort between ASTM and HL7. More information is available from http://www.hl7.org.
Continuity of Care Record (CCR) 
A core data set of the most relevant administrative, demographic, and clinical information facts about a patient’s healthcare, covering one or more encounters. The CCR is Designation E2369-05 of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials, International). More information is available from http://www.astm.org.
Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)
An HL7 standard for the exchange for clinical documents. It specifies the structure and semantics of clinical documents. More information is available from http://www.hl7.org.
Content Binding
A content binding describes how the payload used in an IHE transaction is related to and/or constrained by the data elements contained within the content sent or received in those transactions.
CRS
Care Record Summary. An implementation guide that constrains CDA Release 2 for Care Record Summary documents.
CT
Consistent Time Integration Profile.
DICOM
Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine
DSG
Digital Signatures. An IHE ITI Profile.
EDIS
An Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) is an extended EHR system used to manage data in support of Emergency Department patient care and operations. The functions of an EDIS may be provided by a single application or multiple applications.
eMPI
Enterprise Master Patient Index.
EMR
Electronic Medical Record, an Electronic Health Record system used within an enterprise to deliver care (also called EHR-CR by IHE-XDS).
Estimated Time of Arrival
the time the patient being referred can be expected to arrive in the emergency department.
EUA
Enterprise User Authentication Integration Profile.
Expected Actions
Actions which should occur as the result of a trigger event.
HIMSS
Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society.
HL7
Health Level Seven
HIS
Hospital Information System.
IHE
Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise.
Interaction Diagram
A diagram that depicts data flow and sequencing of events.
IT
Information Technology.
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC®)
A vocabulary developed by the Regenstrief Institute aimed at standardizing laboratory and clinical codes for use in clinical care, outcomes management, and research. Additional information found at http://www.regenstrief.org/medinformatics/loinc/.
Mode of Arrival 
The method of transportation used to transport the patient to the Emergency Department.
MPI
Master Patient Index.
MRN
Medical Record Number.
NAV
Notification of Document Availability
OID
Object Identifier. (See also 'Globally Unique Identifier').
Patient Identifier Cross-reference Domain
Consists of a set of Patient Identifier Domains known and managed by a Patient Identifier Cross-reference Manager Actor. The Patient Identifier Cross-reference Manager Actor is responsible for providing lists of "alias" identifiers from different Patient Identifier Domains.
Patient Identifier Domain
A single system or a set of interconnected systems that all share a common identification scheme for patients. Such a scheme includes: (1) a single identifier-issuing authority, (2) an assignment process of an identifier to a patient, (3) a permanent record of issued patient identifiers with associated traits, and (4) a maintenance process over time. The goal of Patient Identification is to reduce errors.
PDF
Portable Document Format.
PIX
Patient Identifier Cross Referencing. An IHE ITI Profile.
PDQ 
Patient Demographics Query. An IHE ITI Profile.
PHR
Personal Health Record
Procedure
In the context of a "Pre-procedure History and Physical," the "procedure" is a surgery or an invasive examination of a patient that is required by quality review organizations to be preceded by a pre-procedure assessment of procedure risk and anesthesia risk. This assessment is typically referred to as a "Pre-operative" or "Pre-procedure History and Physical."
Process Flow Diagram
A graphical illustration of the flow of processes and interactions among the actors involved in a particular example.
Proposed disposition
the intended disposition (i.e. admission to ICU, discharge to home, transfer to psychiatric hospital), if known, that the referring provider expects the patient will end up after the emergency department intervention.
Referral Source  
An individual, group, or agency that determined the patient should seek care at the ED. Referral source may be used to determine appropriate discharge referrals and services, or to provide surveillance data for program and service planning, or to examine referral patterns.
Role
The actions of an actor in a use case.
RSNA
Radiological Society of North America.
sig.
A Latin abbreviation for signetur used to represent the instruction following the medication name.
Scope
A brief description of the transaction.

SNOMED-CT® A comprehensive clinical terminology, originally created by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and, as of April 2007, owned, maintained, and distributed by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO), a non-for-profit association in Denmark. The CAP continues to support SNOMED CT operations under contract to the IHTSDO and provides SNOMED-related products and services as a licensee of the terminology. More information available from http://www.ihtsdo.org/ or the United States National Library of Medicine at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/Snomed/snomed_main.html

Transport Mode
the method the patient employs, or is provided to get to the emergency department.
Trigger Event
An event such as the reception of a message or completion of a process, which causes another action to occur.
UID
Unique Identifier (See also Globally Unique Identifier).
Universal ID
Unique identifier over time within the UID type. Each UID must belong to one of specifically enumerated species. Universal ID must follow syntactic rules of its scheme.
Use Case
A graphical depiction of the actors and operation of a system.
XUA
Cross Enterprise User Authentication
XDS
Cross Enterprise Document Sharing

Volume II

HIMSS and RSNA
Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise

IHEBandW.png

IHE Patient Care Coordination

Scanned Documents (XDS-SD)
Technical Framework Supplement
Volume II

Revision 3.0
2008-2009

Public Comment


IHE Transactions

This section defines each IHE transaction in detail, specifying the standards used, and the information transferred.

IHE Patient Care Coordination Bindings

This section describes how the payload used in a transaction of an IHE profile is related to and/or constrains the data elements sent or received in those transactions. This section is where any specific dependencies between the content and transaction are defined.

A content integration profile can define multiple bindings. Each binding should identify the transactions and content to which it applies.

The source for all required and optional attributes have been defined in the bindings below. Three tables describe the three main XDS object types: XDSDocumentEntry, XDSSubmissionSet, and XDSFolder. XDSSubmissionSet and XDSDocumentEntry are required. Use of XDSFolder is optional. These concepts are universal to XDS, XDR and XDM.

The columns of the following tables are:

  • <XXX> attribute – name of an XDS attribute, followed by any discussion of the binding detail.
  • Optional? - Indicates the required status of the XDS attribute, and is one of R, R2, or O (optional). This column is filled with the values specified in the XDS Profile as a convenience.
  • Source Type – Will contain one of the following values:
Source Type Description
SA Source document Attribute – value is copied directly from source document. The Source/Value column identifies where in the source document this attribute comes from. Specify the location in XPath when possible.
SAT Source document Attribute with Transformation – value is copied from source document and transformed. The Source/Value column identifies where in the source document this attribute comes from. Specify the location in XPath when possible. Extended Discussion column must not be empty and the transform must be defined in the extended discussion
FM Fixed (constant) by Mapping - for all source documents. Source/Value column contains the value to be used in all documents.
FAD Fixed by Affinity Domain – value configured into Affinity Domain, all documents will use this value.
CAD Coded in Affinity Domain – a list of acceptable codes are to be configured into Affinity Domain. The value for this attribute shall be taken from this list.
CADT Coded in Affinity Domain with Transform - a list of acceptable codes are to be configured into Affinity Domain. The value for this attribute shall be taken from this list.
n/a Not Applicable – may be used with an optionality R2 or O attribute to indicate it is not to be used.
DS Document Source – value comes from the Document Source actor. Use Source/Value column or Extended Discussion to give details.
O Other – Extended Discussion must be 'yes' and details given in an Extended Discussion.
  • Source/Value – This column indicates the source or the value used.

The following tables are intended to be summaries of the mapping and transforms. The accompanying sections labeled 'Extended Discussion' are to contain the details as necessary.

Medical Document Binding to XDS, XDM and XDR

This binding defines a transformation that generates metadata for the XDSDocumentEntry element of appropriate transactions from the XDS, XDM and XDR profiles given a medical document and information from other sources. The medical document refers to the document being stored in a repository that will be referenced in the registry. The other sources of information include the configuration of the Document Source actor, the Affinity Domain, the site or facility, local agreements, other documents in the registry/repository, and this Content Profile.

In many cases, the CDA document is created for the purposes of sharing within an affinity domain. In these cases the context of the CDA and the context of the affinity domain are the same, in which case the following mappings shall apply.

In other cases, the CDA document may have been created for internal use, and are subsequentyly being shared. In these cases the context of the CDA document would not neccessarily coincide with that of the affinity domain, and the mappings below would not necessarily apply.

Please note the specifics given in the table below.

XDSDocumentEntry Metadata

XDSDocumentEntry Attribute Optional? Source Type Source/ Value
availabilityStatus R DS  
authorInstitution R2 SAT

$inst <= /ClinicalDocument/author
/assignedAuthor
/representedOrganization

The authorInstitution can be formated
using the following XPath expression, where $inst in the expression below represents the representedOrganization.
concat($inst/name)

authorPerson R2 SAT

$person <= /ClinicalDocument/author

The author can be formatted using the following XPath expression, where $person in the expression below represents the author.
concat(
$person/id/@extension,"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/family,"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/given[1],"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/given[2],"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/suffix,"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/prefix,"^",
"^^^&", $person/id/@root,"&ISO")

authorRole R2 SAT This metadata element should be based on a mapping of the participation function defined in the CDA document to the set of author roles configured for the affinity domain. If the context of the CDA coincides with that of the affinity domain, then the following x-path may be appropriate:
/ClincicalDocument/author/
participationFunction
authorSpecialty R2 SAT This metadata element should be based on a mapping of the code associated with the assignedAuthor to detailed defined classification system for healthcare providers such configured in the affinitity domain. Possible classifications include those found in SNOMED-CT, or the HIPAA Healthcare Provider Taxonomy. If the context of the CDA coincides with that of the affinity domain, then the following x-path may be appropriate:
/ClinicalDocument/author/
assignedAuthor/code
classCode R CADT Derived from a mapping of /ClinicalDocument/code/@code to an Affinity Domain specified coded value to use and coding system. Affinity Domains are encouraged to use the appropriate value for Type of Service, based on the LOINC Type of Service (see Page 53 of the LOINC User's Manual). Must be consistent with /ClinicalDocument/code/@code
classCodeDisplayName R CADT DisplayName of the classCode derived. Derived from a mapping of /ClinicalDocument/code/@code to the appropriate Display Name based on the Type of Service. Must be Consitent with /ClinicalDocument/code/@code
confidentialityCode R CADT Derived from a mapping of /ClinicalDocument/confidentialityCode/@code to an Affinity Domain specified coded value and coding system. When using the BPPC profile, the confidentialyCode may also be obtained from the <authorization> element.


/ClinicalDocument/
confidentialityCode/@code
-AND/OR-
/ClinicalDocument/authorization/
consent[
templateId/@root=
'1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.1.2.5'
] /code/@code

comments O DS  
creationTime R SAT /ClinicalDocument/effectiveTime


Times specified in clinical documents may be specified with a precision in fractional sections, and may contain a time zone offset. In the XDS Metadata, it can be precise to the second, and is always given in UTC, so the timezone offset if present must be added to the current time to obtain the UTC time.

entryUUID R DS  
eventCodeList O CADT These values express a collection of keywords that may be relevant to the consumer of the documents in the registry. They may come from anywhere in the CDA document, according to its purpose.
eventCodeDisplayNameList R
(if event
Code is valued)
CADT These are the display names for the collection of keywords described above.
formatCode R FM The format code for each PCC Document content profile is provided within the document specifications.
healthcareFacilityTypeCode R CAD A fixed value assigned to the Document Source and configured form a set of Affinity Domain defined values. Must be concistent with /clinicalDocument/code
healthcareFacility
TypeCodeDisplay
Name
R CAD Must be concistent with /clinicalDocument/code
intendedRecipient (for XDR, XDM) O SAT

$person <= /ClinicalDocument/intendedRecipient
and/or
$inst <= /ClinicalDocument/intendedRecipient/receivedOrganization

The intendedRecipient can be formated
using the following XPath expression, where $inst in the expression below represents the receivedOrganization and where $person in the expression below represents the intendedRecipient.
concat(
$person/id/@extension,"^",
$person/informationRecipient/name/family,"^",
$person/informationRecipient/name/given[1],"^",
$person/informationRecipient/name/given[2],"^",
$person/informationRecipient/name/suffix,"^",
$person/informationRecipient/name/prefix,"^",
"^^^&", $person/id/@root,"&ISO",
"|"
$inst/name)

"^^^^^&",
$inst/id/@root, "&ISO", "^^^^", $inst/id/@extension)
-->

languageCode R SA /ClinicalDocument/languageCode
legalAuthenticator O SAT $person <= /ClinicalDocument/
legalAuthenticator


The legalAuthenticator can be formatted using the following XPath expression, where $person in the expression below represents the legalAuthenticator.
concat(
$person/id/@extension,"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/family,"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/given[1],"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/given[2],"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/suffix,"^",
$person/assignedPerson/name/prefix,"^",
"^^^&", $person/id/@root,"&ISO")

mimeType R FM text/xml
parentDocumentRelationship R
(when applicable)
DS Local document versions need not always be published, and so no exact mapping can be determined from the content of the CDA document.
The parentDocumentRelationship may be determined in some configurations from the relatedDocument element present in the CDA dsocument. If the context of the CDA coincides with that of the affinity domain, then the following x-path may be appropriate:
/ClinicalDocument/relatedDocument/@typeCode
parentDocumentId R
(when parent
Document
Relationship is present)
DS Local document versions need not always be published, and so no exact mapping can be determined from the content of the CDA document.
The parentDocumentId may be determined in some configurations from the relatedDocument element present in the CDA dsocument. If the context of the CDA coincides with that of the affinity domain, then the following x-path may be appropriate:
$docID <= /ClinicalDocument/
relatedDocument/parentDocument/id


The parentDocumentId can be formatted using the following XPath expression, where $docID in the expression below represents the identifier.
concat($docID/@root,"^", $docID/@extension)

patientId R DS The XDS Affinity Domain patient ID can be mapped from the patientRole/id element using transactions from the ITI PIX or PDQ profiles. See sourcePatientId below. If the context of the CDA coincides with that of the affinity domain, then the following x-path may be appropriate:


$patID <= /ClinicalDocument/recordTarget/
patientRole/id

practiceSettingCode R CAD This elements should be based on a coarse classification system for the class of specialty practice. Recommend the use of the classification system for Practice Setting, such as that described by the Subject Matter Domain in LOINC.
practiceSettingCodeDisplayName R CAD This element shall contain the display names associated with the codes described above.
serviceStartTime R2 SAT /ClinicalDocument/documentationOf/
serviceEvent/effectiveTime/low/
@value


Times specified in clinical documents may be specified with a precision in fractional sections, and may contain a time zone offset. In the XDS Metadata, it can be precise to the second, and is always given in UTC, so the timezone offset if present must be added to the current time to obtain the UTC time.

serviceStopTime R2 SAT /ClinicalDocument/documentationOf/
serviceEvent/effectiveTime/high/
@value


Times specified in clinical documents may be specified with a precision in fractional sections, and may contain a time zone offset. In the XDS Metadata, it can be precise to the second, and is always given in UTC, so the timezone offset if present must be added to the current time to obtain the UTC time.

sourcePatientId R SAT $patID <= /ClinicalDocument/recordTarget/
patientRole/id


The patientId can be formatted using the following XPath expression, where $patID in the expression below represents the appropriate identifier.
concat($patID/@extension,"^^^&", $patID/@root, "&ISO")

sourcePatientInfo R SAT /ClinicalDocument/recordTarget/
patientRole


The sourcePatientInfo metadata element can be assembled from various components of the patientRole element in the clinical document.

title O SA /ClinicalDocument/title
typeCode R CADT /ClinicalDocument/code/@code


The typeCode should be mapped from the ClinicalDocument/code element to a set of document type codes configured in the affinity domain. One suggested coding system to use for typeCode is LOINC, in which case the mapping step can be omitted.

typeCodeDisplay
Name
R CADT /ClinicalDocument/code/@displayName
uniqueId R SAT $docID <= /ClinicalDocument/id


The uniqueId can be formatted using the following XPath expression, where $docID in the expression below represents the identifier.
concat($docID/@root,"^", $docID/@extension)

XDSSubmissionSet Metadata

The submission set metadata is as defined for XDS, and is not necessarily affected by the content of the clinical document. Metadata values in an XDSSubmissionSet with names identical to those in the XDSDocumentEntry may be inherited from XDSDocumentEntry metadata, but this is left to affinity domain policy and/or application configuration.

Use of XDS Submission Set

This content format uses the XDS Submission Set to create a package of information to send from one provider to another. All documents referenced by the Medical Summary in this Package must be in the submission set.

Use of XDS Folders

No specific requirements identified.

Configuration

IHE Content Profiles using this binding require that Content Creators and Content Consumers be configurable with institution and other specific attributes or parameters. Implementers should be aware of these requirements to make such attributes easily configurable. There shall be a mechanism for the publishing and distribution of style sheets used to view clinical documents.

Extensions from other Domains

Scanned Documents (XDS-SD)

XDS-SD is a CDA R2 document and thus conforms to the XDS Metadata requirements in the PCC-TF, volume 2, Section 5 unless otherwise specified below.

XDSDocumentEntry

XDS-SD leverages the XDS DocumentEntry Metadata requirements in the PCC-TF, volume 2, Section 5.1.1.1.1 and in PCC_TF-2/Bindings unless otherwise specified below

XDSDocumentEntry.formatCode

The XDSDocumentEntry.formatCode shall be urn:ihe:iti:xds-sd:pdf:2008 when the document is scanned pdf and urn:ihe:iti:xds-sd:text:2008 when the document is scanned text. The formatCode codeSystem shall be 1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.2.3.

XDSDocumentEntry.uniqueId

This value shall be the ClinicalDocument/id in the HL7 CDA R2 header. The root attribute is required, and the extension attribute is optional. In accordance with the XDS.a profile, total length is limited to 128 characters; for XDS.b the limit is 256 characters. Additionally see PCC-TF, volume 2, Section 5.1.1.1.1 or PCC_TF-2/Bindings for further content specification.

Relating instances of XDS-SD documents

In general, most instances of XDS-SD will not have parent documents. It is possible, however, in some specific use cases that instances of XDS-SD documents are related. For example, for a particular document it may be the case that both the PDF scanned content and somewhat equivalent plaintext need to be wrapped and submitted. Each document would correspond to separate XDSDocumentEntries linked via an XFRM Association that indicates one document is a transform of the other. These can be submitted in a single submission set, or in separate ones. Other specific examples may exist and this profile does not preclude the notion of a parent document for these cases.

XDSSubmissionSet

No additional constraints. Particular to this profile, a legitimate use of submission sets would be to maintain a logical grouping of multiple XDS-SD documents. We encourage such usage. For more information, see PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.1.2 or PCC_TF-2/Bindings.

XDSFolder

No additional requirements. For more information, see PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.1.3 or PCC_TF-2/Bindings.

Basic Patient Privacy Consents (BPPC)

Laboratory Reports (XD-LAB)

XD-Lab is a CDA R2 document and thus conforms to the XDS Metadata requirements in the PCC-TF, volume 2, Section 5 unless otherwise specified below.

XDSDocumentEntry

XD-Lab leverages the XDS DocumentEntry Metadata requirements in the PCC-TF, volume 2, Section 5.1.1.1.1 and in PCC_TF-2/Bindings unless otherwise specified below

XDSDocumentEntry.eventCodeList

XD-Lab documents further constrain the the XDSDocumentEntry.eventCodeList to the following.

XDSDocumentEntry
Attribute Optional? Source Type Source/ Value
eventCodeList R2 SAT ClinicalDocument / component / structuredBody / component / section / entry / act / entryRelationship / organizer (templateId="1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.3.1.1")/ component / observation(templateId="1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.3.1.1.1")/code

AND

ClinicalDocument / component / structuredBody / component / section / entry / act / subject / code

If the document has Reportable Condition, then this code shall be among those listed in the eventCodeList. Additionally, if the document contains information about a Non-Human Subject, then the code that indicates what this subject is shall be among those listed in the eventCodeList. Thus, this attribute has been enhanced from the XDS profile from O to R2.

XDSDocumentEntry.formatCode

The XDSDocumentEntry.formatCode shall be urn:ihe:lab:xd-lab:2008 The formatCode codeSystem shall be 1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.2.3.

XDSSubmissionSet

No additional constraints. For more information, see PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.1.2 or PCC_TF-2/Bindings.

XDSFolder

No additional requirements. For more information, see PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.1.3 or PCC_TF-2/Bindings.

Namespaces and Vocabularies

This section lists the namespaces and identifiers defined or referenced by the IHE PCC Technical Framework, and the vocabularies defined or referenced herein.

The following vocabularies are referenced in this document. An extensive list of registered vocabularies can be found at http://www.hl7.org/oid/.

Vocabularies Used
codeSystem codeSystemName Description
1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.1 IHE PCC Template Identifiers This is the root OID for all IHE PCC Templates. A list of PCC templates can be found below in CDA Release 2.0 Content Modules.
1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.2 IHEActCode See IHEActCode Vocabulary below
1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.3 IHE PCC RoleCode See IHERoleCode Vocabulary below
1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.4   Namespace OID used for IHE Extensions to CDA Release 2.0
2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.1 CCD Root OID Root OID used for by ASTM/HL7 Continuity of Care Document
2.16.840.1.113883.5.112 RouteOfAdministration See the HL7 RouteOfAdministration Vocabulary
2.16.840.1.113883.5.1063 SeverityObservation See the HL7 SeverityObservation Vocabulary
2.16.840.1.113883.5.7 ActPriority See the HL7 ActPriority Vocabulary
2.16.840.1.113883.6.1 LOINC Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes
2.16.840.1.113883.6.96 SNOMED-CT SNOMED Controlled Terminology
2.16.840.1.113883.6.103 ICD-9CM (diagnosis codes) International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modifiers, Version 9
2.16.840.1.113883.6.104 ICD-9CM (procedure codes) International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modifiers, Version 9
2.16.840.1.113883.6.26 MEDCIN A classification system from MEDICOMP Systems.
2.16.840.1.113883.6.88 RxNorm RxNorm
2.16.840.1.113883.6.63 FDDC First DataBank Drug Codes
2.16.840.1.113883.6.12 C4 Current Procedure Terminology 4 (CPT-4) codes.
2.16.840.1.113883.6.257 Minimum Data Set for Long Term Care The root OID for Minimum Data Set Answer Lists
1.2.840.10008.2.16.4 DCM DICOM Controlled Terminology; PS 3.16 Content Mapping Resource, Annex D
2.16.840.1.113883.6.24 MDC ISO/IEEE 11073 Medical Device Nomenclature
2.16.840.1.113883.3.26.1.5 NDF-RT National Drug File Reference Terminology (NCI version)
2.16.840.1.113883.11.19465 nuccProviderCodes National Uniform Codes Council Healthcare Provider Terminology
2.16.840.1.113883.6.255.1336 X12DE1336 Insurance Type Code (ASC X12 Data Element 1336)
2.16.840.1.113883.6.256 RadLex RadLex (Radiological Society of North America)

The IHE FormatCode vocabulary is now managed in an Implementation Guide published using FHIR.

This FormatCode vocabulary represents:

  • Code System 1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.2.3
  • Value Set 1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.2.7.1

IHEActCode Vocabulary

CCD   ASTM/HL7 Continuity of Care Document
CCR   ASTM CCR Implementation Guide

The IHEActCode vocabulary is a small vocabulary of clinical acts that are not presently supported by the HL7 ActCode vocabulary. The root namespace (OID) for this vocabulary is 1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.2. These vocabulary terms are based on the vocabulary and concepts used in the CCR and CCD standards listed above.

Code Description
COMMENT This is the act of commenting on another act.
PINSTRUCT This is the act of providing instructions to a patient regarding the use of medication.
FINSTRUCT This is the act of providing instructions to the supplier regarding the fulfillment of the medication order.
IMMUNIZ The act of immunization of a patient using a particular substance or class of substances identified using a specified vocabulary. Use of this vocabulary term requires the use of either the SUBSTANCE or SUBSTCLASS qualifier described below, along with an identified substance or class of substances.
DRUG The act of treating a patient with a particular substance or class of substances identified using a specified vocabulary. Use of this vocabulary term requires the use of either the SUBSTANCE or SUBSTCLASS qualifier described below, along with an identified substance or class of substances.
INTOL An observation that a patient is somehow intollerant of (e.g., allergic to) a particular substance or class of substances using a specified vocabulary. Use of this vocabulary term requires the use of either the SUBSTANCE or SUBSTCLASS qualifier described below, along with an identified substance or class of substances.
SUBSTANCE A qualifier that identifies the substance used to treat a patient in an immunization or drug treatment act. The substance is expected to be identified using a vocabulary such as RxNORM, SNOMED CT or other similar vocabulary and should be specific enough to identify the ingredients of the substance used.
SUBSTCLASS A qualifier that identifies the class of substance used to treat a patient in an immunization or drug treatment act. The class of substances is expected to be identified using a vocabulary such as NDF-RT, SNOMED CT or other similar vocabulary, and should be broad enough to classify substances by mechanism of action (e.g., Beta Blocker), intended effect (Dieuretic, antibiotic) or ...


For Public Comment What else needs to appear above for SUBSTCLASS?


IHERoleCode Vocabulary

The IHERoleCode vocabulary is a small vocabulary of role codes that are not presently supported by the HL7 Role Code vocabulary. The root namespace (OID) for this vocabulary is 1.3.6.1.4.1.19376.1.5.3.3.

IHERoleCode Vocabulary
Code Description
EMPLOYER The employer of a person.
SCHOOL The school in which a person is enrolled.
AFFILIATED An organization with which a person is affiliated (e.g., a volunteer organization).
PHARMACY The pharmacy a person uses.


Content Standards

  • PDF RFC 3778, The application/pdf Media Type (informative)
  • PDF/A ISO 19005-1. Document management - Electronic document file format for long-term preservation - Part 1: Use of PDF (PDF/A)
  • HL7 CDA Release 2.0 (denoted HL7 CDA R2, or just CDA, in subsequent text)
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) RFC 3066

Discussion of Content Standards

PDF and plaintext documents intended for wrapping can consist of multiple pages. Encoding of multiple page PDF documents are subject to the PDF/A standard. This ISO standard, PDF/, is a subset of Adobe PDF version 1.4 intended to be suitable for long-term preservation of page-oriented documents. PDF/A attempts to maximize:

  • Device independence
  • Self-containment
  • Self-documentation

The constraints imposed by PDF/A include:

  • Audio and video content are forbidden
  • JavaScript and executable file launches are prohibited
  • All fonts must be embedded and also must be legally embeddable for unlimited, universal rendering
  • Colorspaces specified in a device-independent manner
  • Encryption is disallowed (although the enclosing document and transport may provide encryption external to the PDF content)
  • Compression methods are restricted to a standard list

The PDF/A approach has several advantages over TIFF or JPEG. First, there are more image compressions and format flexibility in PDF, so that the image files sizes can be kept smaller. There are many simple programs available for converting TIFF and JPEG into PDF with various other features for improving compression or adding other information. The PDF/A enables devices that produce vectorized output. Unlike TIFF, JPEG, or BMP, a PDF/A image has the ability to provide several "layers" of information. This allows the creation of PDF searchable images.

A PDF searchable image is a PDF document with an exact bitmapped replica of the scanned paper pages and with text information stored behind the bitmap image of the page. This approach retains the look of the original pages while enabling text searchability and computer analysis. This approach is especially suitable for documents that have to be searchable while retaining the original scan details. The text layer is created by an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) application that scans the text on each page. It then creates a PDF file with the recognized text stored in a layer beneath the image of the text. Unrecognized graphics areas and annotations are preserved with full fidelity in the image. The text form may be incomplete or the OCR confused by some words, but the original image is preserved and available.

Plaintext as well as PDF/A documents shall be base-64 encoded before wrapped in a HL7 CDA R2 header.

HL7 CDA R2 document is constrained so that pertinent metadata values and scanning facility, technology and operator information shall be present (see ‎REFERENCE).

Medical imagery and photographs are outside the scope of this profile. Diagnostic or intervention medical imagery will be supported through DICOM (which includes the use of JPEG and MPEG). Additionally audio and video recorded content is not covered by this profile.

XDS Metadata

XDSDocumentEntry

XDS-SD is a CDA R2 document and thus conforms to the XDS Metadata requirements in the PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.1, unless otherwise specified below.

XDSDocumentEntry.formatCode

The XDSDocumentEntry.formatCode shall be urn:ihe:iti:xds-sd:pdf:2008 when the document is scanned pdf and urn:ihe:iti:xds-sd:text:2008 when the document is scanned text.

XDSDocumentEntry.uniqueId

This value shall be the ClinicalDocument/id in the HL7 CDA R2 header. The root attribute is required, and the extension attribute is optional. In accordance with the XDS profile, total length is limited to 128 characters. Additionally see REFERENCE for further content specification.

Relating instances of XDS-SD documents

In general, most instances of XDS-SD will not have parent documents. It is possible, however, in some specific use cases that instances of XDS-SD documents are related. For example, for a particular document it may be the case that both the PDF scanned content and somewhat equivalent plaintext need to be wrapped and submitted. Each document would correspond to separate XDSDocumentEntries linked via an XFRM Association that indicates one document is a transform of the other. These can be submitted in a single submission set, or in separate ones. Other specific examples may exist and this profile does not preclude the notion of a parent document for these cases.

XDSSubmissionSet

No additional constraints. Particular to this profile, a legitimate use of submission sets would be to maintain a logical grouping of multiple XDS-SD documents. We encourage such usage. For more information, see PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.2.

XDSFolder

No additional requirements. For more information, see PCC-TF-2 Section 5.1.1.3.

CDA Document Content Modules

XDS Scanned Document Specification (XDS-SD OID)

CDA Header Content Modules

CDA Section Content Modules

None

CDA and HL7 Version 3 Entry Content Modules

None

OPEN ISSUES

  • Metadata CP to PCC (CDA Bindings to XDS Metadata - see here), along with any resolution of what is stated in XDS-SD for metadata mapping (especially - subtypes)
  • how and where to document? - movement towards a domain independent CDA R2-based content framework?