IHE Profiles describe specific solutions to integration problems. A profile documents how standards will be used by each system's Actors to cooperate to address the problem.
- See IHE Profile and Design Principles for guidance when authoring new or updated profiles
Referencing IHE Integration and Content Profiles lets implementers and users be sure they're talking about the same solution without having to restate the many technical details that ensure actual interoperability.
For convenient reference, each Profile has a short acronym.
The profiles can also be viewed:
- By Domain: Cardiology Profile, Dental Profile, Endoscopy Profile, Eyecare Profile, IT Infrastructure Profile, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (PaLM) Profile, Patient Care Coordination Profile, Patient Care Device Profile, Pharmacy Profile, Quality, Research, and Public Health Profile, Radiation Oncology Profile, Radiology Profile
- By Standard: CDA, FHIR, DICOM, HL7v2, XDW, Document Sharing
- By Focus: Security & Privacy
Each domain defines and publishes profiles to address interoperability issues related to its clinical and operational scope.
- 1 Symbols Key
- 2 IHE Cardiology Profiles
- 3 IHE Dental Profiles
- 4 IHE Endoscopy Profiles
- 5 IHE Eye Care Profiles
- 6 IHE IT Infrastructure Profiles
- 7 IHE Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (PaLM) Profiles
- 8 IHE Patient Care Coordination Profiles
- 9 IHE Patient Care Device Profiles
- 10 IHE Pharmacy Profiles
- 11 IHE Quality, Research, and Public Health Profiles
- 12 IHE Radiation Oncology Profiles
- 13 IHE Radiology Profiles
The Profiles listed here may be in one of five states:
- - Final Text - stable
- - Trial Implementation - frozen for trial use; changes permitted prior to Final Text; not all TI profiles may be listed here
- - Public Comment - a Trial Implementation profile republished for Public Comment
- - Public Comment - new profile (not for implementation, description added at TI, not all PC profiles may be listed here)
- - Deprecated/Retired - no longer recommended or maintained by IHE
A template for developing profile overview pages is available here.
The links below provide brief overviews of each profile (based on the Profile Overview Template).
IHE Cardiology Profiles
[CATH] - Cardiac Cath Workflow integrates ordering, scheduling, imaging acquisition, storage and viewing for Cardiac Catheterization procedures
[ECHO] - Echocardiography Workflow integrates ordering, scheduling, imaging acquisition, storage and viewing for digital echocardiography
[ECG] - Retrieve ECG for Display provides access throughout the enterprise to electrocardiogram (ECG) documents for review purposes
[ED] - Evidence Documents adds Cardiology-specific options to the Radiology ED profile for DICOM Structured Reports
[STRESS] - Stress Testing Workflow provides ordering and collecting multi-modality data during diagnostic Stress testing procedures
[DRPT] - Displayable Reports manages creation and distribution of “display ready” (PDF or CDA) clinical reports from the creating application, to the department, and to the enterprise.
[REWF] - Resting ECG Workflow workflow for collecting ECG data in both ordered and unordered procedures, data storage and access, and ECG reporting
[IEO] - Image-Enabled Office Workflow integrates an imaging suite with an EHR system in an ambulatory office setting, including ordering, imaging, report creation, and web-based imaging exam review.
[CIRC] - Cardiac Imaging Report Content format for a CDA report of a cardiac diagnostic imaging procedure, including discrete data elements
[CPN] - Cardiac Procedure Note implementation guide for a cardiac procedure note, including Cath/PCI, Structural Heart Interventions and Electrophysiology Implant/Explant procedure.
[CRC] - Cath Report Content format for a CDA report of a cardiac Cath/PCI procedure, including discrete data elements
[EPRC] - Electrophysiology Report Content format for a CDA report of a Electropshyiology Implant/Explant Procedure including discrete data elements.
[RCS-C] - Registry Content Submission-CathPCI format for a CDA report to facilitate submission of NCDR® CathPCI V4.4 data elements to the NCDR® CathPCI Registry®.
IHE Dental Profiles
IHE Endoscopy Profiles
IHE Eye Care Profiles
[A-EYECARE] - Advanced Eye Care Workflow manages and distributes the workflow across equipment within the eye clinic. Includes advanced DICOM features such as DICOM MPPS and Storage Commitment.
[B-EYECARE] - Basic Eye Care Workflow manages and distributes the workflow across equipment within the eye clinic. A sub-set of A-EYECARE.
[C-EYECARE] - Core Eye Care Workflow manages and distributes the workflow across equipment within the eye clinic. Establishes the workflow for when the organization does not integrate a centralized image archive (PACS).
[U-EYECARE] - Unified Eye Care Workflow takes the best features of previously defined eye care workflows, combines them into one workflow profile, and provides more flexibility for real world implementation models for systems such as EHRs and PACS.
[EC-CHG] - Eye Care Charge Posting collects and posts timely billable claims related to Eye Care procedures.
[ECED] - Eye Care Evidence Documents manages observations, measurements, and peri-procedural results.
[ECDR] - Eye Care Displayable Report supports the creation, query/retrieve and reading of ubiquitous display–ready eye care reports.
[ECAS] - Eye Care Appointment Scheduling standardizes the means of requesting patient appointments.
[GEE] - General Eye Evaluation defines the C-CDA document collected during a patient's eye examination.
[EC-Summary] - Eye Care Summary Record defines the C-CDA document collected for a patient's eye care summary medical record.
IHE IT Infrastructure Profiles
Alphabetical by profile name; grouped by profile state.
[ATNA] Audit Trail and Node Authentication Basic security through (a) functional access controls, (b) defined security audit logging and (c) secure network communications.
[BPPC] Basic Patient Privacy Consents records a patient's privacy consent acknowledgement (for enforcing privacy appropriate to the use).
[CT] Consistent Time synchronizes system clocks and time stamps of computers in a network (median error less than 1 second).
[XCA] Cross-Community Access queries and retrieves patient electronic health records held by other communities.
[XCPD] Cross-Community Patient Discovery locates communities with electronic health records for a patient and translates patient identifiers across communities.
[XDM] Cross-enterprise Document Media Interchange transfers documents and metadata using CDs, USB memory, or email attachments.
[XDR] Cross-enterprise Document Reliable Interchange exchanges health documents between health enterprises using a web-service based point-to-point push network communication.
[XDS] Cross Enterprise Document Sharing shares and discovers electronic health record documents between healthcare enterprises, physician offices, clinics, acute care in-patient facilities and personal health records.
[XDS-SD] Cross-enterprise Sharing of Scanned Documents shares unstructured electronic documents including scanned legacy paper and film.
[XUA] Cross-Enterprise User Assertion communicates claims about the identity of an authenticated principal (user, application, system...) across enterprise boundaries - Federated Identity.
[XDW] Cross Enterprise Workflow coordinates human and applications mediated workflows across multiple organizations.
[DSG] Document Digital Signature specifies digital signatures for documents.
[DSUB] Document Metadata Subscription subscribes for metadata-triggered notifications within an XDS Affinity Domain and across communities.
[EUA] Enterprise User Authentication enables single sign-on inside an enterprise by facilitating one name per user for participating devices and software.
[MPQ] Multi-Patient Queries aggregates queries to a Document Registry for data analysis such as provider accreditation, clinical research trial data collection or population health monitoring.
[PAM] Patient Administration Management establishes the continuity and integrity of patient data in and across acute care settings, as well as among ambulatory caregivers.
[PDQ] Patient Demographics Query queries by patient demographics for patient identity from a central patient information server.
[PIX] Patient Identifier Cross Referencing queries for patient identity cross-references between hospitals, sites, health information exchange networks, etc.
[PDQv3] Patient Demographics Query HL7 v3 extends the Patient Demographics Query profile leveraging HL7 version 3.
[PIXv3] Patient Identifier Cross-Reference HL7 v3 extends the Patient Identifier Cross-Reference profile leveraging HL7 version 3.
[PSA] Patient Synchronized Application allows cooperating applications on a workstation to synchronize to selected patient context.
[PWP] Personnel White Pages provides basic directory information on human workforce members within an organization.
[RFD] Retrieve Form for Data Capture requests forms from clinical trial sponsors and public health reporting.
[RID] Retrieve Information for Display provides simple (browser-based) read-only access to clinical information (e.g. allergies or lab results).
[SVS] Sharing Value Sets distributes centrally-managed, common, uniform nomenclatures.
[CSD] Care Services Discovery queries directories containing data about organizations, facilities, services, and providers.
[XCF] Cross Community Fetch fetches a single or small pre-negotiated list of documents from another community.
[XCDR] Cross-Community Document Reliable Interchange (XCDR) pushes documents to systems in another community.
[DEN] Document Encryption encrypts individual documents and portable media content.
[HPD] Healthcare Provider Directory supports discovery and management of healthcare provider information, both individual and organizational, in a directory structure.
[IUA] Internet User Authorization provides user authorization for RESTful interfaces.
[mACM] Mobile Alert Communication Management(mACM) provides a RESTful interface to an alert infrastructure.
[MHD] Mobile access to Health Documents provides a RESTful interface to Document Sharing including XDS.
[mCSD] Mobile Care Services Discovery (mCSD) provides a RESTful interface to discover Care Services: Organization, Location, Practitioner, and Health Services.
[mXDE] Mobile Cross-Enterprise Document Data Element Extraction accesses data elements extracted from shared structured documents.
[NPFSm] Non-patient File Sharing (NPFSm) provides a RESTful interface enable sharing of non-patient files such as clinical workflow definitions, domain policies, and stylesheets.
[PDQm] Patient Demographics Query for Mobile (PDQm) provides a RESTful interface to a patient demographics supplier.
[PIXm] Patient Identifier Cross-Reference for Mobile (PIXm) provides a RESTful interface to patient identifier cross-references.
[PLT] Patient Location Tracking tracks the location of a patient within a facility.
[RMD] Remove Metadata and Documents (RMD) removes documents and related metadata.
[SeR] Secure Retrieve defines a model for Access Control for XDS environments that have a centralized Access Control Decision, with Document Repository enforcement.
[XPID] XAD-PID Change Management updates the relationship between XDS Affinity Domain patient identifiers and other patient identifiers.
[DRR] Document-based Referral Request transfers referral requests by document sharing (e.g., XDS, XDR, XDM).
[NAV] Notification of Document Availability supports out-of-band notifications of documents of interest between systems or users.
[APW] - Anatomic Pathology Workflow integrates ordering, imaging and reporting for basic pathology exams.
[ARPH] - Anatomic Pathology Reporting to Public Health transmits anatomic pathology reports to public health organizations (cancer registries, centers for diseases control, screening organizations, etc).
[APSR] - Anatomic Pathology Structured Report templates anatomic pathology structured reports for cancers, benign neoplasms and non-neoplastic conditions.
[LTW] - Laboratory Testing Workflow integrates ordering and performance of in-vitro diagnostic tests by a clinical laboratory inside a healthcare institution.
[XD-LAB] - Sharing Laboratory Reports describes the content (human and machine readable) of an electronic clinical laboratory report.
[LDA] - Laboratory Device Automation integrates an Automation Manager and robotic laboratory equipment (pre-analytical devices, analyzers, post-analytical devices) in a clinical lab.
[LBL] - Laboratory Barcode Labeling integrates robotic specimen container labeling systems with sources of order-related labelling information.
[LPOCT] - Laboratory Point Of Care Testing integrates performing and collecting the results of in-vitro testing at the point of care or patient’s bedside.
[LCSD] - Laboratory Code Sets Distribution distributes managed sets of clinical laboratory codes (battery, test and observation codes).
[ILW] - Inter Laboratory Workflow supports the workflow of orders and results with a subcontracting laboratory.
[LAW] - Laboratory Analytical Workflow Profile supports the workflow of test orders and results with IVD specimens on Analyzers.
IHE Patient Care Coordination Profiles
Alphabetical by profile name; grouped by profile state.
[XDS-MS] Cross Enterprise Sharing of Medical Summaries describes the content and format of Discharge Summaries and Referral Notes.
[EDR] Emergency Department Referral communicates medical summary data from an EHR System to an EDIS System.
[XPHR] Exchange of Personal Health Record describes the content and format of summary information extracted from a PHR system for import into an EHR system, and visa versa.
[IC] Immunization Content describes the content and format of documents for exchange of immunization data.
[APE] Antepartum Education records educational material provided during the office visit(s) for the antepartum episode.
[APHP] Antepartum History and Physical records data often collected at the initial ambulatory office visit for a pregnant patient.
[APS] Antepartum Summary records the aggregation of significant events, diagnoses, and plans of care during an antepartum episode.
[APL] Antepartum Laboratory records results from standard laboratory tests administered during an antepartum episode.
[BED] Bed Management
[CM] Care Management exchanges information to manage care for specific conditions.
[CMAP] Clinical Mapping translates codes from one terminology to another for exchange of information between systems.
[XCHT-WD] Cross Enterprise Cardiovascular Heart Team orchestrates the creation of a dynamic network of cardiovascular professionals called a Heart Team.
[DCP] Dynamic Care Planning shares and updates patient care plans.
[DCTM] Dynamic Care Team Management shares information about a patient's care teams.
[CTNN] Emergency Department Encounter Summary Composite Triage and Nursing Note records both triage and nursing care delivered to a patient in the emergency department.
[EDPN] Emergency Department Encounter Summary ED Physician Note records care delivered to a patient in the emergency department.
[NN] Emergency Department Encounter Summary Nursing Note records nursing care delivered to a patient in the emergency department.
[TN] Emergency Department Encounter Summary Triage Note records triage of a patient upon presentation to the emergency department.
[ETS] EMS Transport Summary shares information during situations where patients are being transported to a hospital emergency department facility.
[ITS] Interfacility Transport Summary shares information during situations where patients are being transported between two healthcare facilities.
[LDHP] Labor and Delivery History and Physical records data often collected during initial admission to a birthing facility.
[MCV] Multiple Content Views tags CDA text to achieve different rendering behaviors.
[PMDT] Point-of-Care Medical Device Tracking records medical device information acquired at the point-of-care.
[RECON] Reconciliation of Clinical Content and Care Providers communicates lists of clinical data that were reconciled, who did the reconciliation and when.
[ROL] Referral Order Linking communicates and links the referral and/or order number in documentation and metadata associated with services requested by an order placer
[QEDm] Query for Existing Data for Mobile queries for clinical data elements, including observations, allergy and intolerances, conditions, diagnostic results, medications, immunizations, procedures, encounters and provenance.
[RIPT] Routine Interfacility Patient Transport supports interoperability between systems used on transport vehicles between healthcare facilities.
IHE Patient Care Device Profiles
[DEC] Device Enterprise Communication transmits information from medical devices at the point of care to enterprise applications.
[PIV] Point of Care Infusion Verification communicates medication orders to an infusion pump or pump management system.
[IDCO] Implantable Device Cardiac Observation transfers information from an interrogated implantable cardiac device to information management system.
[RTM] Rosetta Terminology Mapping harmonizes ISO/IEEE 11073-10101 nomenclature standard terms used in PCD transactions.
[ACM] Alert Communication Management communicates alerts (alarms - physiological or technical, or advisories), ensuring the right alert with the right priority gets to the right individuals with the right content.
[RDQ] Retrospective Data Query queries archived point-of-care device observations for clinical decision support or other data analysis purposes.
[IPEC] Infusion Pump Event Communication communicates clinical and technical events from an infusion pump to an information system for recording, action or presentation to a user.
[WCM] Waveform Content Module includes waveform data in IHE PCD profiles such as DEC and ACM.
[POI] Pulse Oximetry Integration guides implementation of pulse oximetry devices using IHE PCD profiles.
[MEMDMC] Device Management Communication sends device information and status observations to CMMS/CEMS for equipment management purposes.
[MEMLS] Location Services abstracts device and people location observations and events from location tracking implementation technology.
IHE Pharmacy Profiles
[CMPD] Community Medication Prescription and Dispense integrates prescription, validation and dispensation of medication in the ambulatory sector.
[MTP] Community Medication Treatment Plan Document records the planning of medication to a patient.
[PRE] Community Prescription Document records a prescription to a patient.
[PADV] Community Pharmaceutical Advice Document records a pharmaceutical advice (validation outcome, management command, etc.) in response to a planned or prescribed medication.
[DIS] Community Dispense Document records the dispensation of medication to a patient.
[CMA] Community Medication Administration Document records the administration of medication to a patient.
[PML] Community Medication List carries a list of planned, prescribed, dispensed or administered medication to a patient.
[HMW] Hospital Medication Workflow integrates prescription, validation, dispensation, distribution and administration of medication inside healthcare institutions.
[MMA] Mobile Medication Administration connects EHRs with devices such as smartphones and smart pill boxes using RESTful web services.
[ADX] Aggregate Data Exchange captures and communicates information for birth and fetal death reporting for vital registration purposes.
[BFDR] Birth and Fetal Death Reporting describes the content and format used in the pre-population data part of the Retrieve Form Request transaction from the RFD Integration Profile.
[BFDR-E] Birth and Fetal Death Reporting Enhanced Profile captures and communicates information for birth and fetal death reporting for vital registration purposes.
[CRD] Clinical Research Document describes the content pertinent to the clinical research use case required within the Retrieve Form for Data-Capture (RFD) pre-population parameter.
[CRPC] Clinical Research Process Content specifies content, which is appropriate to help automate the sharing of information among systems during the clinical research process using the transactions from the Retrieve Process for Execution (RPE) profile. Using the transactions from the Retrieve Process for Execution (RPE) profile, CRPC will improve the recruitment for, setup, and performance of clinical studies.
[DEX] Data Element Exchange adds mapping metadata to an annotated data capture form at the point of form design instead of the exchange of data instances.
[DSC] Drug Safety Content describes the content pertinent to the drug safety use case required within the Retrieve Form for Data-Capture (RFD) pre-population parameter.
[FP] Family Planning describes the use of ITI’s RFD to report encounter-level family planning clinical visits. The profile describes the basic data elements that are needed to report quality metrics, a new Family Planning Pre-pop document in alignment with PCC conventions, and maps the data elements to CDA (consisting of the Header, Pregnancy History, Pregnancy Status Review, Coded Vital Signs, Coded Social History, Coded Care Plan, and Coded Results sections).
[HW] Healthy Weight supports electronic information capture and exchange for managing and monitoring healthy weight among clinical systems and public health surveillance systems.
[mRFD] Mobile Retrieve Form for Data Capture describes the exchange of context data to allow a seamless form launch with supporting clinical context.
[PRPH-Ca] Physician Reporting to a Public Health Repository – Cancer Registry defines data elements retrieved from the EMR and transmitted to the cancer registry or to a healthcare provider.
[RSP] Redaction Services redacts data from a document in a user's application to meet requirements for exporting to an external system.
[RM] Research Matching publishes research process definitions to EHR systems to match patients and investigators with appropriate research studies.
[RPE] Retrieve Process for Execution accesses a process definition, such as a research protocol, and executes automated activities without leaving an EMR session.
[SDC] Structured Data Capture utilizes the IHE Retrieve Form for Data Capture (RFD) profile for retrieving and submitting forms in a standardized and structured format. This supplement is based on the work of the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, Standards & Interoperability (S&I) Framework SDC Initiative.
[VRDR] Vital Records Death Reporting defines a Retrieve Form for Data Capture (RFD) content profile that will specify derivation of source content from a medical summary document. by defining requirements for form filler content and form manager handling of the content.
Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Family of Profiles
[EHCP] Early Hearing Care Plan communicates care plans to care providers to assist early detection, documentation and intervention for hearing loss.
[EHDI-HPoC] Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Hearing Plan of Care communicates care plan information to assist early detection, and document interventions for hearing loss.
[EHDI-HSDmsg] Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Hearing Screening Device Message automates collection of hearing screening results from screening devices.
[EHDI-WD] Early Hearing Detection and Intervention-Workflow Document orchestrates the collection and exchange of EHDI data between clinical and public health information systems.
[NANI] Newborn Admission Notification Information transfers basic newborn demographic data electronically to public health programs from a birthing facility.
[QME-EH] Quality Measure Execution-Early Hearing communicates patient-level data to electronically monitor the performance of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) initiatives for newborns.
IHE Radiation Oncology Profiles
[BRTO] Basic Radiation Therapy Objects integrate the flow of treatment planning data from CT to Dose Review for basic treatments
[MMRO] Multimodality Image Registration for Radiation Oncology integrates PET and MRI data into the contouring and dose review process.
[MMRO-II] Multimodality Image Registration for Radiation Oncology 2012 updates MMRO to accommodate a change in the DICOM Spatial Registration Object and to require reference images for a Frame of Reference
[ARTI] Advanced Radiotherapy Objects Interoperability adds additional RT treatment techniques to those defined in BRTO
[TDW] Treatment Delivery Workflow standards-based radiation therapy treatment scheduling using workflow
[TDW-II] Treatment Delivery Workflow-II updates TDW to accommodate changes in DICOM Supplements 74 and 96
[DCOM] Dose Compositing transfers spatially-related dose information between systems.
[ECSI] Enterprise-Centric Scheduling Interoperability describes a Radiation Oncology workflow where scheduling information is handled by an institution-wide information system and exchanged with a TMS
[QAPV] Quality Assurance with Plan Veto describes a Radiation Oncology workflow where a Treatment Delivery Device verifies the correctness of Delivery Instructions just prior to treatment
IHE Radiology Profiles
- Profiles for Workflow
[SWF] Scheduled Workflow integrates ordering, scheduling, imaging acquisition, storage and viewing for Radiology exams.
[PIR] Patient Information Reconciliation coordinates reconciliation of the patient record when images are acquired for unidentified (e.g. trauma), or misidentified patients.
[PWF] Post-Processing Workflow provides worklists, status and result tracking for post-acquisition tasks, such as Computer-Aided Detection or Image Processing.
[RWF] Reporting Workflow provides worklists, status and result tracking for reporting tasks, such as dictation, transcription and verification.
[IRWF] Import Reconciliation Workflow manages importing images from CDs, hardcopy, XDS-I, etc. and reconciling identifiers to match local values.
- Profiles for Content
[NMI] Nuclear Medicine Image specifies how Nuclear Medicine images and result screens are created, exchanged, used and displayed.
[MAMMO] Mammography Image specifies how Mammography images and evidence objects are created, exchanged, used and displayed.
[ED] Evidence Documents specifies how data objects such as digital measurements are created, exchanged, and used.
[SINR] Simple Image and Numeric Report specifies how Diagnostic Radiology Reports (including images and numeric data) are created, exchanged, and used.
[REM] Radiation Exposure Monitoring specifies how radiation details from imaging procedures are created, exchanged and used.
[REM-NM] Radiation Exposure Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine specifies how radiation details from procedures using radiopharmaceuticals are created, exchanged and used.
[PERF] CT/MR Perfusion Imaging specifies encoding of Contrast Perfusion imaging data using Enhanced CT/MR DICOM objects.
[DIFF] MR Diffusion Imaging specifies encoding of MR Diffusion imaging data using Enhanced MR DICOM objects.
[DBT] Digital Breast Tomosynthesis specifies how Mammography and Digital Breast Tomography images and evidence objects are created, exchanged, used and displayed.
- Profiles for Presentation
[CPI] Consistent Presentation of Images maintains consistent intensity and image transformations between different hardcopy and softcopy devices.
[PGP] Presentation of Grouped Procedures helps view and report individual requested procedures (e.g. head, chest, abdomen) that an operator has grouped into a single scan.
[BIR] Basic Image Review defines baseline features and user interface for simple review of DICOM images.
- Profiles for Infrastructure
[PDI] Portable Data for Imaging stores image data and diagnostic reports on CDs, DVDs or USB for importing, printing or displaying in a browser.
[XDS-I.b] Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging.b extends XDS to share images, diagnostic reports and related information across a group of care sites.
[TCE] Teaching File and Clinical Trial Export lets users flag images and related information for automatic routing to teaching file authoring or clinical trials management systems.
[ARI] Access to Radiology Information shares images, diagnostic reports, and related information inside a single network.
[ATNA] Audit Trail and Node Authentication - Radiology Option defines Radiology-specific audit trail messages and security measures to protect patient information confidentiality.
[CHG] Charge Posting provides timely procedure details from modalities to billing systems.
[XCA-I] Cross-Community Access for Imaging extends XCA to share images, diagnostic reports and related information across communities.
[IOCM] Imaging Object Change Management communicates image replacement or deletion instructions between multiple imaging systems.
[IID] Invoke Image Display allows an EHR/PHR/RIS to request a PACS (IM/IA/ID) to display images of a patient or study.
[WIC] Web-based Image Capture stores imaging objects using a DICOM RESTful API.
[SOLE] Standardized Operational Log of Events stores and retrieves logs of operational events (patient arrives, scan complete, etc).